If you have purchased a major brand of cold-pressed juice lately, chances are it has undergone the process of HPP (High Pressure Processing). Since there is some confusion about the technology I want to describe the process of HPP, dispel a few myths, and finally discuss why HPP is important and how it has helped our industry.
The Process of HPP
HPP is a processing step that extends shelf life and kills at least 99.999% of the microorganisms in juice. This is referred to as a “5 log reduction”. Here is the process:
- Raw juice is made on a juice press or other type of juicer, then bottled in plastic bottles. (HPP is not the process of making juice itself, but rather a secondary processing step).
- The plastic bottles of juice are loaded into a giant chamber that fills with water and pressurizes the bottles up to 85,000 PSI. To put this pressure in perspective, if you were to tie a rock to a bottle of juice and sink it to the deepest part of the ocean, the Mariana Trench, you would only achieve 1/5th of the pressure created in an HPP machine.
- The pressure maintains between one minute and several minutes depending on settings, then de-pressurizes.
- When the bottles come out the other end, they now contain almost no living microbial content, and now have a shelf life of about 30-45 days, instead of raw juice which is normally 3-5 days. The two major benefits are a safer juice product, and that retail stores can keep the juice on their shelf for much longer without it going to waste. Beyond these benefits, it is actually FDA law that juice must undergo a process like HPP or heat pasteurization in order to be distributed wholesale to re-sellers. If the maker is selling direct to consumer, this process is not required.
Note: Are you researching juicing methods in preparation for starting a juice business? Get 3 free juice business design guides that will help you get started on laying out your juice business, regardless of how big of an operation you’re planning.
The 4 Myths:
Myth 1: Companies must put HPP on the label if it has been used to process the juice.
HPP, heat pasteurization, and other preservation methods are not required to go on the juice label in the US [EDIT: There is an exception for pasteurized orange juice]. Most juice companies choose to put it on the label so consumers know that what they are buying has been processed to make it safer than raw juice. There are many beverage companies who do not put HPP on the label, and some which refer to it under other names such as “Cold-Pressured” or “Pascalization.”
There were some lawsuits made public a few years ago when some cold-pressed juice companies were labeling the product as “100% Raw” and “Unpasteurized” even though it had been through HPP. Although it wasn’t against the law to label the product as raw, the plaintiffs claimed that the juice companies were deceiving their customers.
If you are unsure if juice is raw, look for this warning, as it is required by law to put on the label for raw juice:
“WARNING: This product has not been pasteurized and, therefore, may contain harmful bacteria that can cause serious illness in children, the elderly, and persons with weakened immune systems.”
Myth 2: HPP does not heat the juice.
When juice or any other liquid is pressurized, there is heat created. This type of heating is called “adiabatic heating.” According to the FDA, “HPP treatment will increase the temperature of foods through adiabatic heating approximately 3 °C per 100 MPa.” Juice is pressurized up to 600 MPa, which means that the juice is heated by up to 18 °C (32 °F) from its starting temperature. Note: To find the increase in °F, keep in mind that 1 °C = 1.8 °F, so multiply 18 °C x 1.8 °F = 32 °F.
Once the juice is depressurized, it immediately comes back down to its starting temperature (adiabatic cooling). For example, if the juice goes into the chamber at 45 °F then it can reach 77 °F for a few minutes while under pressure. This is still much less heat than thermal pasteurization temperatures, which are over 160 °F, although only for about 15 seconds.
Myth 3: HPP doesn’t affect nutritional or enzyme content.
According to some studies, HPP has at least a minor affect on nutrient content, with “remaining contents in the range of 87% to 100%.” Enzyme residual activity varies depending on the enzyme being tested and the settings of the HPP process, with majority of residual activity levels “lying in the 20%-60% range.”
It should also be noted that these tests were done immediately after the HPP process, and whether these numbers hold up several weeks later is questionable. Nutrients in raw juice begin to break down in a matter of days, so I assume this is the same with HPP juice, however I cannot find any data on this so it is only my opinion.
Myth 4: HPP juice is always cold-pressed.
As I stated above, HPP is not the process of actually making the juice, but rather a secondary processing step. Just because juice has gone through HPP does not mean it has been cold-pressed. In fact, many HPP “juices” contain purees, smoothies, powders, or other ingredients which are not cold-pressed at all.
Adding to this confusion is the new term “Cold-Pressured.” Within the last couple of years this term has been showing up on beverage products to refer to HPP. “Cold-Pressured” looks so similar to “Cold-Pressed” that I believe this is confusing consumers, and in my opinion should not be used to refer to HPP.
Whether or not I agree with the terms being used, I do think HPP is an important technology and has helped grow the cold-pressed juice industry in the US first, and now world-wide.
Why HPP is Important:
1. HPP makes cold-pressed juice more accessible.
Prior to the use of HPP in the juice industry, it was a mission to find cold pressed juice in most parts of the country, excluding the coastal cities. You had to either hunt down a specialty shop, or be satisfied with juice in the grocery store that had been heat pasteurized. HPP has allowed cold-pressed juice companies to distribute their juice to every part of the country without sacrificing too much of the desired qualities of the juice. The taste, color, texture, and nutrient content of the juice are generally better than heat pasteurized juice, while still extending shelf life substantially (although not as long as heat pasteurization).
2. HPP juice is safer than raw juice.
As discussed in the beginning of this article, HPP successfully achieves a 5 log reduction of microorganism in juice. These potentially harmful bacteria include E. Coli, salmonella, and other bad things. If harmful bacteria does exist in the raw juice, HPP can usually make it safe.
HPP Industry Links
Hiperbaric – HPP equipment manufacturer
Hiperbaric tolling centers – These facilities can HPP your products for a fee.
Avure – HPP Equipment Manufacturer
Avure tolling centers – These facilities can HPP your products for a fee.
Joyce Longfield – HPP industry expert and food regulation consultant. If you are looking for information on where and how to access HPP for your products, Joyce is the best resource I know of.
coldpressure.org – HPP trade organization
Agree or disagree with anything I’ve said here? Please comment below and join the discussion!
Note: If you're planning to start a juice business, let us help you with these 3 free juice business design & equipment guides.
I think HPP is a good option, BUT it's NOT the same as FRESH PRESSED JUICE and people are being misled to think HPP juice is NOT heated and EQUAL to fresh pressed juice !!! I'm reasonably certain that the enzymes and many micro nutrients are killed during this process. Bottom LINE: Juice can last 20-30-40 days versus 2-3-4 days of fresh, untreated juice !!!
Looks like the most current and relevant research is reviewed in this 2021 article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8434123/ Definite decreases, but def a good proportion of substances retained after HPP.
Sorry to be jumping in so late but I’d like to make a few points. Probiotics contain microorganisms other than (good) bacteria; in addition, not all beneficial bacteria are probiotics. Mammals are NOT the only source of probiotics--I guarantee that I get plenty of probiotics from the consumption of raw sauerkraut and sour pickles, both of which are fermented in brine, neither of which have fur. It’s time to dispel what I call “The Myth of the Living Enzyme.” While enzymes are essential for some life functions, they’re NOT alive--they proteins, like hair and fingernails. They can certainly be destroyed but they can’t be killed. I agree that consuming them in fresh juice is beneficial but reverently referring to them as “living” is bad science and does everyone a disservice.
we have been making cold pressed pineapple juice now for more than 30 years and keep on freezing the juice straight as it comes out of the machine ( X1 ) any other form of preservation reduces the value of the juice. most vitamins can only be absorbed in the presence of enzymes. for this reason enzymes are often referred to as co-vitamins. we sell the juice sometimes frozen but mainly defrosted with a refrigerated shelf life of 6 days to hotels, restaurants and coffee shops; to stores and supermarkets we only sell it frozen.
Hi, thanks for the article. I am trying to find information about whether the FDA has approved or any studies have been done on whether HPP juice or smoothies are safe for pregnant women. Can you direct me to anything? Thank you!
Hi Peggy, If there are any studies, the marketing department at Hiperbaric might know. They are a company that provides HPP services. You can find their company information here: https://www.hiperbaric.com/en/
Hi Charlie, do you know where can I get more information about the UV light process for pasteurization?? Thank you
There's not a ton of public information available, but you can reach out to the manufacturer of the equipment - CiderSure.
Hi Charlie! I don’t want to pasteurized our juices at the moment but I have few store fronts that would like to have our juices there. If I ‘rent’ a section and put a mini fridge and Customers only can pay on our website, can I do that? Or have you seen it done? Thank you! Great seeing you at JuiceCon!
Hi Irene, If customers are paying on your website it might be ok. Definitely gray area. Would depend on your local health inspector.
Hi Charlie, great article - thank you. Lots of useful information. Can I also just say, you have the patience of an angel, having read through all of the comments. I do have one question: would nitrogen flushing be an option? From what I can tell, it prolongs shelf-life simply by removing the oxygen but doesn't affect the product itself. Probably not as effective as HPP but better than not doing anything at all. Kind regards, Andrea
Thanks for the comment! I have heard of nitrogen flushing, but I think that poses other problems with anaerobic bacteria - the type that doesn't need oxygen. Juice is a living thing so I'm not sure nitrogen would be a good solution, but I could be wrong!
Hi there 😄 Is there another way to achieve the 5 log reduction without using HPP? Please advise. Also if this 5 log reduction is achieved without HPP, will the juice last for 30 days as well?
5 log reduction can be achieved using a variety of methods like HPP, heat pasteurization, and UV processing. Shelf life varies with each method, but they should all give you longer than 30 days. Raw juice made on a press generally has a 3-7 day shelf life.
Hi Can you suggest a HPP machine to buy for small sized juice company.
Hi unfortunately there is no such thing as a small HPP machine. They start at about $500K. Small companies that HPP their product send it to a facility that already has an HPP machine. You can check the websites of avure and hiperbaric for lists of HPP tolling facilities.
What I understand from this article is that basically, the HPP process extends the shelf life, flavor and consistency of the juice. What is not clear yet is the nutrient and enzyme content after the 3-5 day range for cold-pressed juices... I see the benefits of the HPP but would love to find more evidence about the nutrient content in juice after a few weeks.
I agree... there's not any data out there that I have found with tests done on juice that's multiple weeks old.
How long can UV prolong the juice sale term? How does UV pasteurization work? Is the juice poured into a plastic bottle exposed to UV radiation? approximate price of UV equipment? could not find anywhere (
Hi you can check out the brand cider sure for UV equipment. UV light penetrates the juice and kills microorganisms.
There is a big misconception of what’s safe and healthy in this article. Bacterias, fungus, parasites, are perfectly safe and necessary to absorb on a daily basis. Pasteurizing any type of food is the worst thing you can do for your health. Look up Aajonus Vonderplanitz for a deeper understanding of health and physiological nutrition.
Hi Charlie, Long time no speak!! I see you mentioned back in 2017 that the Guelph institute in Canada were looking at nutrient preservation in cold pressed HPP juice. Have you seen any results from them? Thanks for any info!
Hi Jane! I don't think that ever panned out, they started work but I never saw any results.
Thanks Charlie.great informative resource.raw juice is the way to go. Will rather honour d quality produce that goes into juice.
not having had access to all those wonderful gadgets to pasteurise or homogenise or HPP treat our juice ( pineapple juice only ), we have resorted to selling it frozen to resellers who also sell it frozen. we sell it defrosted to coffee shops and restaurants where we keep a close watch on their consumption and replenish it ourselves if and when needed. freezing seems to be the only way to preserve the juice with all its goodness intact. regards from PNG, eddie pfeiffer
What technology are you freezing juices for?
The marvelous human body insures that 99.9% of all the bacteria and enzymes ingested are killed and inactivated by the acids and bile salts in the digestive tract. So the health difference claimed between raw and Pasteurized juice is mainly BS. In fact the pathogens are more likely to survive the body's attempts to kill them than are the good environmental bacteria.
Thanks for the article! Wondering how about chemicals and compounds in the plastic itself and those becoming released due to tremendous amounts of pressure, into the juice during the process. Has any studies look at that? Thanks!
I haven't seen any studies on this unfortunately
I recently had my second incident of a severe food-poisoning-like reaction after drinking Hpp treated vegetable juices (Suja). Turns out they had been sold weeks past their expiration date. The first time I had a reaction, I did not suspect the juice; the second time is when I linked the two and knew it was indeed the juice. The company and everything I've read so far assures me that while "sensory experience may be affected," drinking Hpp-treated juices past their expiration is safe. In my case, I consumed the juice on the same day I bought it--then noticed it was two months past expiration. (I usually check, but the tiny print barely shows up when the bottle is full.) I would appreciate your thoughts on this! TIA!
First of all, sorry to hear about the incident. That's never fun. As far as the juice being bad, I would say if the juice was past its expiration date that the responsibility lands on the retailer, not on the juice company. The juice company is responsible to give accurate shelf life / expiry information to the retailer, but is not responsible to ensure that the retailer is pulling expired products from the shelves.
Hi, Thank you for the information.. I am wondering if you know if juices produced with cold pressed and then HPP leave an alkaline ash like fresh squeezed or do they digest into an acid ash like pasteurized juices?
That's a really good question! I have no idea. Would be great to see some studies on that.
I am Ashok Sahay from India. We in India are having a very nutritious flower, which become like dry fruit after sun drying, botanical name Madhuca Indica ( found only in India), contains about 70% of carbohydrate 20% of fiber and rest minerals, vitamins and medicinal properties. We have got extracted the juice from Good Nature device, W e want cold pressed juice of Madhuca Indica to be concentrated up to 3000 micron of viscosity, to get it used like HONEY, because its in-gradients tally with HONEY in great extent. Can you suggest any process.
Ashok, it sounds like you might be able to make juice, and then evaporate the water in order to syrup like honey. Would you be able to send us a sample of the flower to test for you?
Hi Dr.Alka here. Myself an Ayurvedic Doctor from India. I am in search of a technique to make bottled Dragon fruit juice with a shelf life of say around 2-3months, as good as fresh. Could you please guide me in the technologies involved in juicing and preservation?
I don't think you can expect to extend shelf life 2-3 months and keep the juice tasting fresh. You will need to decide between fresh juice or long shelf life. As far as preservation is concerned, most juice companies choose either heat pasteurization or HPP. HPP is the least destructive of the two.
Thanks Charlie for your post. It definitely seems that HPP juices are the way to go for my family based on the site you posted with research from 50 HPP studies. This quote from the summarized conclusion gives me peace of mind as the risk for encountering Cyclospora, E. coli, Hepatitis A, Listeriosis, Noroviruses, Shigellosis , and Salmonella are just not worth it for us with all the juice we drink: "HPP was shown to preserve physicochemical properties, vitamin content, and antioxidant activity of fruit and vegetable juices at conditions required to achieve 5-log reduction of pathogenic microorganisms." I was really surprised to read this as well in the conclusion of those studies: "Juice antioxidants were highly conserved and often prone to enhancement, showing an average residual activity of 101.1 ± 23% following HPP treatment. Several instances of enhancement in residual content or activity following treatment were reported with all the examined vitamins and antioxidants."
John, happy you found the article useful. In regards to the nutritional content, I would say that I believe these tests were all done immediately after processing, but the juice you buy at the store may have been on the shelf for 2-3 weeks, so it might change over time. I would like to see additional studies done on juice up to 30 days after processing.
Cold Pressed/Cold Pressured - Very hard to find in the 3 or 4 grocery stores in my area. I hate to lose live enzymes but not getting e-coli is beneficial. Have any brand names you could share that we can look for in the stores, or ask our stores to carry? Thanks for the Great Information to add to my Juicing Education
Stewart, do they make fresh foods in store? If they do, you should ask if they've considered making cold-pressed juice, since that's the only way you'll get raw juice in store. We work with a lot of grocery stores and offer near turn-key solutions. If they aren't interested in that, you could request brands like forager, sol-ti, suja.
Husband and wife new (19 month old) Juicery Business owners, who purchased an X1 to get things going for us in North Alabama. This article was fantastic. It helped solidify and summarize some of the readings I've found about HPP online, but my number one concern is focused on the potential illegal marketing habits these HPP producers are using to promote to consumers that their product is "cold-pressed". I believe words mean something and after 30-50 years of "cold-pressed" meaning to the general public, a raw, unpasteurized juice. It appears these large companies are abusing this term in order to capture a new market of consumers who just don't understand the difference. In fact, I was already operating our business for about 6 months, and started considering a more regional distribution to Birmingham, because we already captured an audience down there who love our product. But I didn't understand how these other "cold-pressed" juice companies were able to ship their product and maintain the lean logistical challenge of having to produce a 3-5 day shelf life product, ship it and still have it last for a consumer 3day cleanse. That's when I first had that "ahh ha!" moment. As if I caught a criminal in the act and while in the dark, were secretly misleading consumers to buy their product, as if it really was equal value to our own non-HPP. My question to the author and anyone reading this blog. Is there not a petition or formal dispute we could collectively file together against the FDA and the general labelling and marketing practice of these HPP providers, so that they are restricted in calling their products "cold-pressed"?? Aside from other required HPP markings, I think the most detrimental impact that is hurting the true raw cold-pressed industry, is the fact these companies don't have anyone stopping them from using a term, the raw cold-pressed industry has created by default pre-HPP technology, and educated the general public into knowing cold-pressed juice means something that HPP is clearly NOT. How do we protect ourselves from this obvious and detrimental marketing tactic from the larger companies pushing their HPP products on the shelves? Consider this comment the first signature for a petition for the FDA to make it illegal for HPP providers to market and label their products as cold-pressed and accept the fact the general public believes cold-pressed by default and historical reference is a raw unpasteurized juice. --Jacob Birmingham (Owner of The Juicery Press LLC, Huntsville, Alabama)
Jacob, thank you for the comment. You may be interested in this class action lawsuit going on now: https://www.bevnet.com/news/2017/wtrmln-wtr-targeted-class-action-suit
Hi Charlie, Why are so many companies in the coldpress industry are using puree instead of real fruits? I often see on the labels that they use berry-puree instead of real berries, and this trend also applies to other fruits. Is it just because of cost savings? If yes, how much do they are able to save by using purees instead of real fruits? Or is there any other explanation behind this trend? Rgds Sebastian
Sebastien, purees offer substantial cost savings, because they are including the whole fruit in the product instead of just the juice. When you press juice, you get about 65%-75% yield, but when you use puree it is 100% yield. So you can see that they are saving as much as 35% food cost.
Great article, Charlie! Could you please confirm the HPP process is only possible with plastic bottles? Would glass bottles work too? Thanks.
Thanks Victor! HPP doesn't work with glass bottles because the pressure would break them.
Oops Nutrients not nutriends!
Great article! Very informative. I also would love to see a study done to test the nutriends on cold-pressed HPP after 3 weeks. Proof is in the pudding as they say! 😄
Hi Charlie, Thanks for all the info. So if I understand correctly, you can't sell raw juice in a supermarket without HPP or similar process since the supermarket is a reseller. So when you say companies are going raw, how are they selling it? Online? Brick and mortar? Is there another option?
Yes, you're correct. Under FDA regulations you can sell raw juice direct to consumer, whether it by brick and mortar, delivery, at a farmer's market, etc. If you own a juice factory and a bunch of stores, you can manufacture the juice in your factory, transport it to your stores, and sell it from there, since technically you're still selling direct to consumer as your company both makes the juice and sells it, even though it's out of different brick and mortar locations. If you want to sell wholesale you will need to look into a preservation method like HPP or pasteurization.
Thank you for being a transparent company helping to educate those of us in this cold pressed juice industry! Joyce Longfield aka JLo is also an amazing resource and has helped me so much!
Hi Charlie, as you responded: "Nutrients in raw juice begin to break down in a matter of days, so I assume this is the same with HPP juice, however I cannot find any data on this so it is only my opinion." Is there any chance you could do a test with nutrients on coldpressed HPP and see what the numbers would be after a longer time, 3 weeks or so.? Regards Toril Merete from Norway
Guelph institute in Canada is working on this now. hopefully will have some data in a couple of months...
Hi Toril, Indeed there is a lot of abstracts and papers on this and the conclusion is that HPP juices retain nutrients such as antioxydants and vitamins for a longer time than unprocessed juices, mainly because bacteria and other microorganisms consume them for their metabolism. Liu et al. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on overall quality parameters of watermelon juice. Food Science and Technology International, 19:3 (2013) 197 - 207 Barba, F. J. et al. Evaluation of quality changes of blueberry juice during refrigerated storage after high pressure and pulsed electric fields processing. Innovative food science and emerging technologies 14 (2012) 18-24 Moreno et al. Altas presiones en la elaboración de zumo de uva tinta. Tecnifood, marzo/abril (2013) 121-123 Ferrari et al. The application of high hydrostatic pressure for the stabilization of functional foods: Pomegranate juice. Journal of Food Engineering 100 (2010) 245-253
With HPP if 99.999% of microorganisms in juice is killed / eliminated, then why the self life is shorter then normal hot pasteurisation method which also eliminates 99.999% of microorganisms, but the shelf life a very long. if the juice is in sterile state then there would be no bacterial activities for the product to spoil.
5 log reduction is the minimum that needs to be achieved. Heat pasteurization can achieve a much greater log reduction, even making juice shelf stable without refrigeration. HPP can also achieve greater than 5 log reduction, but I don't believe it an make juice shelf stable. It might be possible though.
HPP don´t work against spores... only low% of micro.. Shelf life were limited and cost are high por companies..
hello hpp seems to be very expensive for a starting business in juicing , is there any machine doing the same process and what's the price of the cheapest hpp machine regards rassim
Yes, HPP machines are very large and expensive. That's why most juice companies don't purchase the machines themselves, but rather pay an HPP tolling facility to process it for them, at a per-bottle rate.
Very good Article Charlie! In fact HPP juice is not raw anymore, but as close as possible. And the extended shelf life and safety is a good compromise for people who don't have immediate access to juice bars. As a matter of fairness you should mention the third big HPP Equiment manufacturer thyssenkrupp-Uhde. You can find more information on http://www.uhde-hpp.com Regards.
Thanks Charlie and Alfred, I do agree that 'cold pressed"in which both are on the same page in regards to the intended nutrition value for the beneficial of its intended purpose with it's duration when served straight away as intended. Cool and informative . Regards.
Great article Charlie. Loving all the informative blog posts. Keep 'em coming!
Sorry Charlie I disagree with you stating that HPP treated juice has the same nutritional qualities as does raw untreated juice. The fact that the shelf life is extended by weeks, even 6 weeks is tribute to the fact that the juice is not longer alive, and filled with life. The organisms in the juice, except for those that morph into e coli or... are for the most part beneficial for the human body. It is sad for me to see a trend to long shelf life of juice for the sake of a bottom line. The idea of fresh pressed (call it cold press or not) is to provide a rich source of dense nutrition that is instantly assimilated by the health or less healthy. The produce that were grown and reduced to juice should be honored to accomplish the maximum benefit. It is like you saying homogenized and pasteurized milk is a superior product to raw milk. In both cases the raw juice or milk must be consumed while fresh. Norman Walker who's juicer good nature designed there's from intended juice to be for its nutritional value...Not a commodity. Let the others do that. Pressed juice is a medicine and should be treated as so. Thanks, Alfred
Alfred, thank you for your response. I actually don't believe that HPP juice has the same nutritional qualities as raw juice, and in fact I wrote the opposite in the article. And I wrote under myth #3 "It should also be noted that these tests were done immediately after the HPP process, and whether these numbers hold up several weeks later is questionable." So, in short we are in agreement on both points. I don't believe that there is an overall trend to longer shelf life. In fact, it's the opposite. More grocery stores than ever are now making raw juice in-store, instead of selling pasteurized juice that has a 6 month shelf life or more. There are many juice companies moving from raw to HPP, but there are 10X more juice companies popping up every month that are 100% raw and local. I appreciate your reference to Norman Walker as was a pioneer in the industry, however Goodnature machines were designed around the traditional rack-and-cloth type press, not the Norwalk. Let me just say that I totally respect what you're doing at Ascending Health and love the fact that you are sticking to raw, unprocessed juice. I would love to come visit sometime! thanks again
Hi Charlie! Very informative article. Is there another process that you would recommend in killing the bacteria without killing the live enzymes, HPP testing prices have gone up significantly. --best, amanda
Thanks Amanda, the only other technology I know of is UV filtering. I believe the results are slightly better, but I haven't done extensive research on it. Here is an article http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1541-4337.12214/full
Hi Charlie. Great article! A couple of things to keep in mind: 18° C = 64° F. If HPP kills 99.9% of the bacteria, it is killing all the 'good' bacteria from fresh produce along with the bad. So if HPP juice is your only choice, then yes, it is better than a Gatorade. But it is still much less beneficial than a non-HPP, cold-pressed juice. Cheers!
Barth, yes you're right 18 C is 64 F, but an increase of 18 C is not an increase of 64 F. Calculating an increase in temperature is different than converting temperature. I agree that raw juice is the way to go if available!
¿Concerning the good bacteria on fresh juices, could you give any example? The only beneficial bacteria for us are probiotics coming from other mammals and only a small fraction of them. The only bacteria you get on raw vegetables and fruits are from contamination, if we take in consideration the (often) poor hygiene of raw vegetable/fruits handling and juice making...there is a real risk of parasites, E.coli, Listeria monocytogenes and so on. which are not so dangerous for a young adult in good health but can be extremely harmful (or even lethal) for kids, pregnant women and elder people.
I totally agree. I guess it is the next best thing.
Myth #1 is not a myth per CFR 21 all juices that are pasteurized or treated must state that on the label. In fact the process must be no smaller than 1/2 the size of the word juice on the front panel.
Matt, are you referring to this section? http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=146.140 From what I can tell, that is only specific to pasteurized orange juice. Can you point to other information? Thank you for the feedback.